The United Kingdom 🇬🇧 (often referred as Britain and known also by the acronym UK) is a European country that worships Christianity (mostly Anglicanism). A member of the European Union from 1973 to 2020. The UK is made up by England (where the capital London is), Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. It is a constitutional monarchy.
The UK was established in 1801 which consisted of Great Britain and Ireland. Upon the secession of Ireland from the UK, except for most of Ulster, it acquired its present-day borders in 1921.
- A law introduced in April 2010 was thought to ban anything that had a child participating in or near to sexual acts, but it was eventually tightened up to specifically only target actual child pornography.
- Areopagitica by John Milton was banned in the Kingdom of England for political reasons.
- Rights of Man - this work by Thomas Paine was banned in the UK and its author was charged with treason for supporting the French Revolution.
- Despised and Rejected - this novel by Rose Laure Allatini was banned between 1918 until 1975 under the UK's Defence of the Realm Act for criticizing Britain's involvement in World War I, and for sympathetically depicting male homosexuality.
- Lady Chatterley's Lover - this novel could not be published openly in the United Kingdom until 1961, due to its explicit language and depiction of sex (and, it's been suggested, its depiction of an affair between an aristocratic woman and a working-class man). In 1959, Penguin Books published a version and were immediately hit with prosecution under the then-recent Obscene Publications Act. The defence were able to call some of the most respected and admired scholars and critics of the day to testify on their behalf, and the prosecutor didn't do himself any favours when he asked the jury to consider whether the book was the kind "you would wish your wife or servants to read" — a rather condescending question which no doubt charmed the socks off the women and middle-class people on the jury (It is said that one member of the House of Peers drily remarked that he was not concerned about his wife and servants reading it, but he did not want it getting into the hands of his gamekeeper.). The jury returned a "not guilty" verdict, and the trial is often credited for the resulting relaxing of regulations for publishing explicit material in Britain.
- James Joyce's Ulysses was banned in the UK until 1936.
- The Well of Loneliness - this lesbian novel of the 1920s was banned for a "graphic depiction of lesbian sex", which consisted of the single sentence, "And that night they were not divided." It was also the subject of the highest-profile obscenity prosecution before the Chatterley case, with very different results; it never even got to a jury, and the magistrate notoriously rejected the mere concept of a defence of artistic merit in obscenity cases.
- Boy - this novel by James Hanley about the brief life and early death of a thirteen year old stowaway from Liverpool was banned in 1934 after Hanley's publisher Boriswood lost a court case against a charge of obscenity. However, the novel was reprinted in 1992 by Penguin Books and André Deutsch.
- Lolita - this novel by Vladimir Nabokov about a French middle-aged literature professor obsessed with an American 12-year-old girl, whom he sexually molests after becoming her stepfather, was banned between 1955 and 1959 for being "obscene".
- Last Exit to Brooklyn - this anthology of short stories by Hubert Selby Jr. was banned in Soho for frank depictions of taboo subjects, such as drug use, street violence, homosexuality, transsexualism and domestic violence.
- Spycatcher - this autobiography by former MI5 intelligence officer Peter Wright was banned in the UK 1985–1988 for revealing secrets, before its publishing in 1987.
- The Love That Dares to Speak its Name - this poem by James Kirkup was banned due to its description of a Roman soldier falling in love with the crucified Christ and having sex with his corpse before the Resurrection, while also suggesting that Jesus had sexual relations with practically every other male character in the Gospels. Its publication in Gay News in 1976 led to the UK's last criminal prosecution for blasphemy, brought privately by notorious conservative activist Mary Whitehouse against the magazine's publishing company, and the editor Denis Lemon. Both were fined and Lemon got a suspended prison sentence. The criminal blasphemy law was abolished in England and Wales in 2008, but remains in force in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
- Lord Horror - this deliberately scabrous speculative fiction graphic novel by David Britton which portrays an alternate timeline where the Nazis won World War II, is the most recent publication to have been banned as criminally obscene in the UK, in 1991. The judge ordered the remaining print run to be destroyed. The ban was overturned on appeal the following year, but the book remains out of print.
- 2000 AD - this controversial sci-fi comic was subject to particular political censorship when it depicted Britain being conquered by a foreign superpower, which turned out to be the Soviet Union. The government insisted that they be renamed the "Volgan Republic", so as not to offend the Russians when the invaders eventually lost to La Résistance. They also objected to a frame showing an unidentified female prime minister swinging on the end of a noose.
- One issue of MAD had to have the a page containing a strip mocking the royal family ripped out of every copy sold in the UK.
- The UK had a strong backlash against horror comics in the 1950s, blaming them for juvenile delinquency (using much the same logic that led to the Comics Code in the U.S. around the same time). In fact, a 1955 law was introduced specifically to ban the sale of American horror comics to children; it remains in force, although there have been no prosecutions since the 1970s.
- Tintin in the Congo - this Tintin comic book was banned as being racist, colonialist propaganda until 2005, when it was finally released with a foreword that places the racial and colonial imagery in the story in historical context. In other countries, such as South Africa, it remains banned for the same reasons, though in the rest of Africa, even Congo itself, the story is one of the most popular in the Tintin series.
- There have been no obscenity prosecutions against commercially-published prose in Britain since the 1970s; the last was an unsuccessful attempt to prosecute an "autobiography" (later disowned) of the porn star Linda Lovelace. In the 2000s, a man was controversially prosecuted for obscenity after posting a pornographic online Hate Fic about raping, torturing and killing the members of girl group Girls Aloud, but that one also collapsed.
- The Anarchist Cookbook, Kill or Get Killed and Put 'Em Down. Take 'Em Out. Knife Fighting Techniques From Folsom Prison - these books are considered criminal for containing information useful to terrorists.
The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) has the authority to effectively ban films by refusing to rate them or give them a classification; films cannot be legally sold or displayed anywhere in the UK without such a classification unless when exempt. They've gotten considerably more lenient since 1999; these days, they'll only refuse classifications for films with animal torture, child pornography, particularly dangerous and imitable actions, sexually alluring graphic violence, or invasions of privacy. Any film which depicts unsimulated animal cruelty, including cockfights and horse falls, is never going to be seen uncut in the UK.
Mull of Kintyre test
As told by an urban legend, the Mull of Kintyre test or Mull of Kintyre rule was an unofficial guideline used by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) to decide whether an image of a penis could be shown. According to the myth, the BBFC would not permit the general release of a film or video if it depicted a penis erect to the point that the angle it made from the vertical was higher than that of the peninsula of Kintyre in Argyll and Bute on maps of Scotland. The BBFC has denied the existence of any such "test", maintaining it is merely a humorous rumour.
The Mull of Kintyre test was said to have first been used for the release of the controversial erotic historical drama film Caligula in 1979.
Films considered as 'video nasties' are generally low-budget exploitation or horror films that have been known as these in 1983. These movies were refused a classification by the BBFC, effectively banning them. The problem was that it just made people curious, and the films being on a list made it easier for people to identify the "good stuff"; as such, the BBFC has become more lenient in recent years. Many of the Video Nasties are still banned today, although mostly because they have never been re-submitted for a new certificate. Among these are The Beast in Heat, Blood Rites, Fight for Your Life, Forest of Fear, Last Orgy of the Third Reich, Love Camp 7, Mardi Gras Massacre, and The Werewolf and the Yeti - which have still not been passed by the BBFC. A ninth film, Snuff, was passed in 2003 but has yet to receive a home video re-release. The others have mostly been re-released uncut, although films that feature unsimulated animal cruelty, such as Cannibal Ferox and Cannibal Holocaust, still have the most graphic scenes trimmed.
Individual instances of film censorship
- £1,000 Reward - this 1913 Anchor Film Company, starring and directed by Harold Heath, filmed in quarries on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, and depicted an escape from the nearby Convict Prison, was ruled by The Home Office ruled that it must not be shown publicly, presumably believing it would give real prisoners ideas.
- The Life Story of David Lloyd George - This biopic was abandoned in post-production, and the unedited rolls of original camera negative were shelved until their accidental rediscovery in 1994, leading to the film being restored by, in effect, editing the film as it would have been had the production process not been interrupted. It is believed that the rapid decline in Lloyd George's popularity during the shooting period led to fears that the film would meet a hostile reception if released, and that as a result, its suppression was engineered by the leadership of the Liberal Party.
- The Phantom of the Opera (1925) - banned between 1925 and 1929 because it was too horrifying for general distribution.
- Battleship Potemkin - This Soviet film was banned because of "inflammatory subtitles and Bolshevist Propaganda". The film was exhibited in private showings and in certain localities. Unbanned after the death of Joseph Stalin.
- The Miracle Woman - this film was briefly banned because of its attack on Christian hypocrisy.
- Freaks - this horror film was banned for almost 30 years (1932-1963) due to the shock of the audiences during some scenes. Available from 1963 - passed with an X rating."
- The Island of Lost Souls - this film was banned until 1958, due to its depiction of vivisections, which fell under the policy of not depicting cruelty to animals in feature films.
- I Vinti - this film was refused a certificate by the British Board of Film Censors in 1954, and never subsequently resubmitted for theatrical or home release since.
- The Wild One - this film was banned from distribution in the United Kingdom until 1967 as according to the censors, the film encouraged criminal activity and antisocial behavior.
- Glen or Glenda - this Ed Wood film was rejected/banned from distribution in the United Kingdom due to its trans-related subject matter. In 1981, it was distributed and reviewed in the Monthly Film Bulletin under the title "I Had Two Lives", and in 1995, it was released on VHS uncut with a 15 rating.
- Black Sunday - this film directed by Mario Bava was banned due to its violent content until 1968.
- Shock Corridor - this psychological thriller film directed by Samuel Fuller was initially banned on multiple counts but mainly because the film "presents a mental hospital in a light that would be considered objectionable in this country", which BBFC secretary John Trevelyan felt was offensive to "people who have friends and relatives with mental illness". The BBFC subsequently received a letter from the distributors who objected the film's ban and tried to make 'minor deletions' to the film in order to make it acceptable, but the film was still rejected. Subsequent attempts to release the film were rejected in 1966 and 1968, but the Greater London Council passed the film with an X certificate in 1969. The film was later passed at an uncut 15 certificate on home video in 1990.
- 491 - this controversial Swedish drama film was banned for a 1964 release.
- The Naked Kiss - this crime film was initially banned in 1964, but was later given an uncut release for a 1990 home video release, with an 18 certificate.
- Onibaba - this Japanese historical drama film was originally banned in 1965, but a cut version was allowed with an X certificate in 1968. All versions have been released uncut since the 1994 VHS release.
- The Wild Angels - this motorbike film was banned in 1966, but was cut for a 1972 cinema release. Later uncut for VHS version and onward.
- The Trip (1967) - this psychedelic film was banned due to the overall film condoning and glamorizing the use of LSD. The film was rejected by the BBFC four times between 1968 and 1988. It was not released in Britain until 2002
- In 1969, Ken Loach was commissioned by the Save the Children Fund charity to make an hour-long documentary promoting its work. Upon viewing the rough cut, the sanctioning of film's distribution or broadcast was refused by the charity's executives, believing that it was a negative portrayal of their organisation. The dispute resulted in a court ruling to the effect that the film's master elements be preserved in the National Film and Television Archive, but that no access be allowed without Save the Children's Permission. After negotiations between the British Film Institute and Save the Children, the first public screening of the film took place at London's National Film Theatre in August 2011. Though never formally titled, the film is cataloged in the BFI's records as The Save the Children Fund Film.
- 99 Women - this women in prison film was originally banned in 1969 under the title Ninety Nine Women. It later passed in 2007 with a minute cut due to animal cruelty.
- Django - this western film was bannned due to concerns over "the excessive violence in the film & the moral tone", and was rejected after the distributor refused to make cuts. Was released uncut with an 18 certificate for the 1993 Arthouse VHS, and then at a 15 certificate for the 2004 Argent DVD.
- Bloody Mama - this horror film was initially banned in 1970, a cut version was passed in 1971 for general cinema release, and was passed uncut in 2009.
- Trash - this film was banned because of its drugs theme, and the potential harm it could have (mainly the encouragement of drug use among young people) because of it. A censored version was later passed in 1972, which the distributor claimed was "cinematic history down the drain", but then ironically cut more material out of the film for the film's release, on the ground that the censored material was "either boring or possibly distasteful". Both BBFC and distributor cuts added to a total of 11 minutes. These cuts were mostly waived for future releases, and the film was finally released uncut in 2005.
- Straw Dogs - this psychological thriller film was originally rated X for the cinema with cuts in 1971, there was no immediate attempt to apply for a home video certificate following the passing of the Video Recordings Act 1984 due to scenes of sexual violence being "positively" depicted. Two attempts of distributing the edited American version of the film were both rejected by the BBFC in 1999. The MPAA-mandated cuts reduced the length of the rape scene, and the second rape that was removed for US release. This version ended up eroticizing the first rape scene, and with the new guidelines the BBFC had at that point, the US cut of the film was deemed unacceptable. The uncut version of the film was finally re-released in 2002.
- The Panic in Needle Park - this romance drama film was banned in June 1971 by the BBFC, before being released with an 'X' rating in November 1974. A cut version, short of 57 seconds, was passed with an '18' rating on New Year's Eve 1987 for video release. In April 2002, however, a version of the film was passed with an '18' rating by the BBFC, and all its previous cuts were waived. Explicit detail of injecting drug use is no longer considered grounds to cut or ban a film, but does require restriction to the '18' category unless there is an aversive, anti-drugs message. Nonfiction material which explicitly advocates use or cultivation of substances controlled under UK law- such as in four documentary/instructional videos on cannabis and psilocybin-containing 'magic' mushrooms submitted in 2005- may still be banned.
- Man of the Year (Homoeroticus) - This film about a three testicle man was banned in 1972.
- Deep Throat - This film, which is one of the first story-based pornographic films, was originally banned upon its release because many individuals at the BBFC saw it as obscene. Ten years later, in 1982, the courts upheld the ban of the film on grounds of obscenity. The uncut DVD was finally given an R18 rating in 2000, which allowed it to be sold in licensed sex shops in the UK. A cut version has been sanctioned for a similar 18 certificate and a wider release.
- A notorious video nasty is The Last House on the Left (1972), which was banned several times starting with the film's original attempted theatrical release in the UK in 1974. Anchor Bay's 2004 DVD was also forced to have cuts, but they got around this by including the deleted material in frame-by-frame photo galleries in the bonus features (the BBFC only rates motion video content), providing a link to cut scenes on a website (also outside the BBFC's control). The film was finally passed uncut in 2008, and only because of its "dated nature" by that point. This video has a detailed rundown of the film's notorious censorship history in the UK.
- A Clockwork Orange was voluntarily not distributed by the director Stanley Kubrick, after he heard of crimes and rapes inspired by the movie and fearing for his own safety. The ban was lifted when Kubrick died in 1999.
- Coffy - this blaxploitation film was initially banned by the BBFC for 1973 cinema release, but then resubmitted and released in a cut from in 1974. Passed 18 uncut in 1988.
- The Texas Chain Saw Massacre - After its initial British release, including a one-year theatrical run in London, this film was initially banned on the advice of British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) Secretary Stephen Murphy, and subsequently by his successor, James Ferman. While the British ban was in force, the word "chainsaw" itself was barred from movie titles, forcing imitators to rename their films. In 1998, despite the BBFC ban, Camden London Borough Council granted the film a licence. The following year the BBFC passed The Texas Chain Saw Massacre for release with an 18 certificate (indicating that it should not be seen or purchased by a person under 18), and it was broadcast a year later on Channel 4.
- Score - this erotic romance film was initially banned in 1974, the film was later passed in a censored form (removing one scene of unsimulated sexual activity) for a 2012 home video release.
- The Dirty Mind of Young Sally - this film was banned by the BBFC for 1975 cinema release. A very short version was further cut by the BBFC for 1986 VHS.
- Salò, or The 120 Days of Sodom -This film directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini, based on the novel The 120 Days of Sodom by the Marquis de Sade was initially rejected, but was passed with an 18 certificate in 2000.
- Deep River Savages - this cannibal movie directed by Umberto Lenzi was originally banned and listed as a video nasty, but eventually passed with animal cruelty cuts in 2003.
- Sweet Movie - this surrealist comedy-drama film was banned due to unpleasant scenes involving lavatorial practices; explicit sex and nudity; footage of an adult stripping in close proximity to young children, which was considered distasteful in 1975 and thought potentially unlawful on its 1980 re-submission following enactment of the Protection of Children Act 1978; and general concerns that the film may cause offence and controversy in the country. Has not been re-submitted since, but has occasionally been shown at arthouse cinemas in large UK cities, presumably with approval from the local authority for viewing by adult patrons.
- Maîtresse - this film was refused a British certificate because of its depiction of sadomasochism; an examiner's report said that "the actual scenes of fetishism are miles in excess of anything we have ever passed in this field". Released with an X certificate in 1981, with several minutes of cuts. Passed uncut with an 18 certificate for DVD release in 2003.
- Confessions of a Blue Movie Star - this film was banned in 1978, but later passed with cuts.
- I Spit on Your Grave - this rape and revenge horror film was initially banned for high levels of sexual violence. In 2001, a cut version was released with an 18 certificate.
- Derek and Clive Get the Horn - this comedy film was banned in 1980 due to the supposed abusive overuse of swear words. Was later passed uncut with an 18 certificate for a 1993 video release.
- Bare Behind Bars - This Brazilian women in prison sexploitation film was classified as an 18 after the distributors removed 1m 38s of explicit scenes of unsimulated sex acts (such as fellatio and vaginal penetration by penis and dildo). The BBFC were prepared to grant an R18, which would have allowed it to be sold in licensed sex shops.
- Mother's Day - this rape and revenge slasher film was banned by the BBFC for 1980 released during the video nasty period.
- The House on the Edge of the Park - This exploitation horror film was banned for a cinema release in 1981. Initially granted an 18 certificate in 2002, albeit one with substantial cuts totaling 11 minutes and 48 seconds. In 2011, the film was reclassified by the BBFC, and most cuts were waived. However, it is still censored with 43 seconds of cuts to sexual violence in which a razor is traced over a woman's naked body, after which her body is cut with the razor.
- Maniac - this psychological slasher film was refused a certificate twice by the BBFC, first for a cinema release in 1981, and then for a video certificate in 1998, on the grounds of unacceptable levels of sexualised violence. Released with 58 seconds of cuts to such violence, including a strangulation and a stabbing murder, in 2002.
- Possession - this psychological horror drama film was banned until 1991 for its violent content.
- The New York Ripper - this film was firstly banned due to a high level of sexual violence against women. Although it was finally released 20 years later, the film remains censored, as a breast slashing scene remains unacceptable to BBFC guidelines.
- Love Camp 7 - this 1969 women in prison exploitation film, which was one of the first Nazi exploitation features ever made, went on to be one of the 39 prosecuted "Video Nasties" during the early 1980s. The film was entered for classification in 2002 and was rejected as "the whole purpose of the work is to invite male viewers to relish the spectacle of naked women being humiliated for their titillation".
- The Evil Dead - this Sam Raimi horror film was one of the first films deemed a 'Video nasty' - the term for films criticized for their violent content by the press, commentators, police and Trading Standards authorities, some religious leaders and 'pro-family' activists such as Mary Whitehouse. Despite eventually being removed from the DPP list of Video Nasties, the film was still postponed being released until 1990.
- Shogun Assassin - this jidaigeki film (which was a compilation of the first two films of the Lone Wolf and Cub series) was banned from 1983 to 1992 for extreme violence.
- Faces of Death - this mondo horror film was banned for explicit gore and juxtaposing fictional deaths and real footage of accidents, but was passed with only animal cruelty cuts in 2003.
- Zombie Creeping Flesh (Hell of Living Dead) - this horror film was swept up in the Video Nasties controversy and withdrawn. An attempt to resubmit the film for classification was stonewalled by the James Bulger murder case (where a two-year old boy was abducted, murdered and tortured by two 10-year-old boys in 1993) , though it was passed uncut with an 18 rating several years later.
- Savage Streets - This teen vigilante action film was rejected in 1984. In 1987 passed 18 with cuts in 1m 4s, but then rejected again until 1991. In 2011 passed 18 without cuts.
- Cannibal Holocaust - This horror film as well as being labelled as a 'Video Nasty', it was originally believed to be a snuff film. Its director Ruggero Deodato was arrested for obscenity charges and was forced to prove that nobody had died during production. Despite finally being officially released in 2001, the film received 5 minutes and 44 seconds worth of cuts. In 2011, the film was re-released and all but 15 seconds of cuts- a muskrat being killed with emphasis on blood and pain- have been restored.
- The Exorcist - the theatrical version of this horror film starring Linda Blair passed, uncut, with an X rating, by the BBFC in 1974 and has always been able to be screened legally. The original home video of the film was released in 1979 and was not banned per se, but Warner decided not to submit the film for classification for a few years following the video nasties controversy (as they believed there was a high probability of an official ban) and the implementation of the Video Recordings Act 1984 in 1986. It was not until 1999 that the video was finally submitted and passed, uncut, with an 18 rating.
- Silent Night, Deadly Night Part 2 - This slasher film was refused a UK video release by the BBFC in 1987 after the distributor refused to edit a double murder scene and shots of topless women being killed. Following a re-submission, the film was passed uncut in 2020.
- Death Wish - Despite being initially passed uncut with an X certificate, this vigilante drama thriller film suffered censorship problems after the implementation of the Video Recordings Act 1984. Before this, the film was available on video uncut without a video classification, relying on its cinema certificate for a rating. After this, it became compulsory for all videos to have a rating, leading to Death Wish being submitted for a video certificate in 1987. James Ferman wanted to cut the controversial rape scene, but was concerned that such intervention would ruin a crucial part of the film. As such, the film was withdrawn rather than outright banned. It was later passed with minimal cuts in 2000 to the rape scene and all previous censorship was waived in 2006.
- Hidden Rage - this film was refused a certificate after the board felt that the film's rape scenes were 'titillatory' for male audiences, feeling that cutting wouldn't be an option.
- Leatherface: The Texas Chainsaw Massacre III - this horror film was banned due to graphic violence, which is particularly focused against women; passed uncut in 2004.
- 1 Day - this film was banned in Birmingham for portraying gang warfare in said city.
- Re-releases of Hell of the Living Dead and Reservoir Dogs were briefly held up in the aftermath, though home video classifications were finally bestowed upon Hell of the Living Dead in 2002 and Reservoir Dogs in 1995 (the latter following a theatrical re-release).
- While Monty Python's Life of Brian had a release, the lobby groups in the UK were outraged about the film's subject matter. They knew that lobbying the government directly would just draw attention to the film, so they instead went to local councils — over which these groups exerted enormous influence — and convinced them to ban the film from theatres in their own town. Many of them did so, without having seen the film or even asking why they should ban it. A Channel 4 documentary about the film's clash with the lobby groups showed a particularly insane interview with a councilman in Harrogate who had banned the film there:
- Reporter: Now, you've not actually seen the film?
- Councillor: No, we haven't.
- Reporter: What reports have you had of it? Where have those reports come from?
- Councillor: The reports have come from the Festival of Light, and they have told us of the attitude of the American Catholic church[Notes 1](sic) and the American Jewish church[Notes 2] (sic).
- Reporter: What do you know about the Festival of Light yourself?
- Councillor: Nothing.
- David Cronenberg's Crash was banned by the Westminster Council in London by (whose territory covers the main West End theatres) after a censorious campaign against it by lobby groups.
- Visions of Ecstasy, a short film featuring Saint Teresa of Avila sexually caressing the body of Jesus on the cross, was banned as violating a British anti-blasphemy law then on the books. The film remains the only film banned in the U.K. for blasphemy, In 1996, the distributor went to the European Court of Human Rights, asking them to consider whether any anti-blasphemy law could be consistent with the right to freedom of expression, but was told that it was. The law would abolished in 2008, and the film finally got a DVD release in 2012.
- International Guerrillas - this Pakistani spy action comedy film was refused a certificate as it characterised author Salman Rushdie as a sadistic criminal mastermind, working for an international conspiracy devoted to destroying Islam. As Rushdie's book The Satanic Verses had caused uproar and led to a fatwa being issued against him in 1988 by Supreme Leader of Iran Ayatollah Khomeini, the BBFC banned the film on the grounds that his portrayal in the film could inflame some to violence and that they were concerned over the author's safety. However, Rushdie himself objected to the ban, feeling that "censorship is usually counter-productive and can actually exacerbate the risks it seeks to produce". The rejection was subsequently overturned following the film's appeal to the Video Appeals Committee.
- Reservoir Dogs - this Quentin Tarantino film was submitted to the BBFC for a video release certificate in 1992 (it had been submitted for theatrical distribution, was passed uncut and shown widely in cinemas). Though the film was never formally refused a video certificate, one was not actually granted until 1995. Because of the BBFC's statutory powers under the Video Recordings Act 1984, the delay amounted to a de facto ban during this period, during which a second theatrical release took place in 1994. It has been alleged that the delay was due to political pressure applied to then-BBFC's director, James Ferman, resulting at least in part from the revived controversy over so-called video nasties that was precipitated by the murder of James Bulger in 1993.
- The Good Son - this psychological thriller film was withdrawn due to the James Bulger murder. When it was released on video in 1995, it was given an 18 certificate, with edits made to the sequence in which Macaulay Culkin's character drops a dummy over a bridge into oncoming traffic and causes a multiple car pile-up, out of fear that children would try to imitate the stunt. The 2002 DVD has been passed uncut with an 18 certificate.
- Natural Born Killers - this crime film had its certification delayed while the British Board of Film Classification investigated claims that the film incited violence upon release in the U.S. The BBFC later gave the film, directed by Oliver Stone, an 18 certificate. The VHS release, also rated 18, was banned by Warner Bros. until 2001. This was in response to the Dunblane massacre, which occurred shortly after it passed uncut.
- Back in Action - This action film starring Roddy Piper was originally banned on the grounds that its extremely violent content could be harmful, as they felt that it was likely to appeal to minors, particularly those with a record of violent offending. The rejection was over turned after a heavily pre-cut version was further censored in order to remove the more brutal parts of the film (including kicks to the head and face, the smashing of heads against walls, floors and pillars and the biting of ears) and glamorising of weaponry. All cuts were waived when the film was resubmitted in 2004.
- Kickboxer 4: The Aggressor - this martial arts film had a video certificate rejected in 1994, on the grounds that it was 'celebration of extreme violence as entertainment'. Passed uncut for a DVD release in 2004.
- Boy Meets Girl (1994) - In spite of being allowed an uncut 18 rating on initial cinema release, this film was refused a home video certificate, due to its strong emphasis on torture. Given an uncut 18 certificate in 2001 for DVD release.
- Mikey - this psychological crime film was rejected for a certificate and banned by the BBFC in 1996 due to the James Bulger murder case. The BBFC (on the guidance of three child psychiatrists) banned the film because it features a child as a killer (which they believed might cause children who watched it to act violently). The murder also delayed the re-release of Hell of the Living Dead for several years (see above).
- Bare Fist: The Sport That Wouldn't Die - this documentary about bare-knuckle fighting was refused a certificate twice. In both cases, the board was concerned with how the documentary allegedly glamorised the sport, through its lengthy sequences of the fighting as well as the instructional use of achieving lethal effects, like lacing bandaged fists with glass fragments. While they didn't object to what the documentary was wanting to achieve, which was trying to legalise the sport, the content mentioned was still a concern. After the director refused to make the board's cuts, the film was initially banned in 1996. A later re-submission in 1999 was similarly unsuccessful.
- Brave, Bashed, Battered and Bruised - this documentary about karate was banned because, according to the board, the film was 'selling the pleasures of gross violence through its unrelenting focus on the infliction of injury and pain.
- Date with a Mistress - this film about sadomasochism was banned by the BBFC because of 'pornographic treatment of sex in the context of force, restraint and the infliction of pain'
- Deadbeat at Dawn - this action film was rejected, with high level examiners (including Andreas Whittam Smith) taking objection to its content, In spite the fact that cuts were suggested on first submission to the use of martial arts weaponry, the Board were split over the film due to its high levels of violence.
- Changing Room Exposed - this film was refused a video certificate by the BBFC in 1998, due to its content (consisting of footage from a men's changing room without the participants' knowledge) violating Article 8 of the European Convention of Human Rights which guarantees the right to privacy. The distributors later went to the Video Appeals Committee in order to overturn the decision, but withdrew from the process later on. In 2001, it was re-submitted under the title Video Voyeur under the pretense that the participants knew they were filmed. When the board didn't receive any concrete evidence for this, the film was rejected again in 2003.
- Banned from Television - this direct-to-video film was banned as the board felt that this film's constant display of real death, injury and mutilation for entertainment was unacceptable. This was because they argued that it could desensitize people and erode their compassion towards the suffering of others, something worsened by how it could potentially get into the hands of minors.
- A Cat in the Brain - this horror film was banned due to unacceptable amount of sexual violence. Passed uncut in 2003.
- Hooligans - this documentary about hooliganism in football was refused a video certificate, as it glorified football hooliganism.
- Bumfights Vol. 1: A Cause for Concern - this film was banned as its content violated the Video Recordings Act 1984 as it exploited 'the physical and other vulnerabilities of homeless people', since they were constantly being 'abused, assaulted, and humiliated' in the video according to the board.
- Spy of Darkness - this OAV anime (Original Animated Video) was banned due to unacceptable levels of eroticised sexual violence, something worsened by how some of the victims seemed to enjoy being raped. The other three 'hentai' videos in the Darkness series were passed 18 with extensive cuts, some compulsory (to remove the kind of eroticised sexual violence which dominates Spy of Darkness) and others to graphic animations of consensual sex featuring penetration, ejaculation and semen to avoid the R18 category which would have prevented them from being legally sold outside of sex shops.
- Women in Cellblock 9 - this 1977 Swiss exploitation action horror film was rejected over sexual violence being eroticized and images of Susan Hemingway, who was 16 at time of filming, which were considered potentially indecent (in England and Wales, indecent images of minors are illegal; the relevant age was raised from 16 to 18 by the 2003 Sexual Offences Act, which had been passed by Parliament to take effect May 1, 2004 shortly after this submission to the BBFC).
- Traces of Death - this 1993 mondo film was banned for featuring real images of death and suffering that were deemed to have "no journalistic, educational or other justifying context" and liable to deprave and corrupt the audience (thus contravening the Obscene Publications Act) in their presentation as mere entertainment.
- Terrorists, Killers and Other Wackos - this shockumentary was banned as it presented clips of actual injury and death with "no journalistic, educational or other justifying context for the images shown" as well as how the "undercurrent of racism and xenophobia" could potentially lead to viewers becoming more racist.
- Struggle in Bondage - this film about bondage is rejected by the BBFC for depicting women bound and gagged, writhing and struggling against their restraints.
- Murder-Set-Pieces - this horror film was submitted for release in the United Kingdom to the BBFC who refused to classify it on video/DVD in 2008. The BBFC stated they rejected the film because of sexual violence, sustained sadistic terror and humiliation, and focus on the graphic killing of a pre-teen child which together raised a potential harm risk and potentially breached obscenity laws.
- The Texas Vibrator Massacre - this pornographic horror film was banned due to containing a significant amount of eroticized sexual violence, and for scenes of intercourse between characters intended to be brother and sister. The original version, (unofficially) "rated XXX" in its US release to indicate hardcore pornography, runs 96 minutes; the version submitted to the BBFC was 20 minutes shorter than this and had already had all clearly unsimulated sexual activity and sight of semen removed to satisfy their Guidelines for "18" as opposed to "R18" sex works, but the violence and incestuous set-up are considered equally unacceptable in material intended for sexual arousal of the viewer irrespective of explicitness.
- NF713 - this film, in which a female "enemy of the state" is tortured, was banned after its primary purpose was judged to be "to sexually arouse the viewer at the sight of a woman being sexually humiliated, tortured and abused".
- Grotesque was banned by the BBFC due to a high level of sexual torture. Unlike other torture films like Hostel and Saw, Grotesque was deemed by Examiners not to have sufficiently contextualised its sadistic imagery, which let Japanese filmmaker Koji Shiraishi say that he was "delighted and flattered by this most expected reaction from the faraway country, since the film is an honest conscientious work, made sure to upset the so-called moralists." The BBFC noted that it's quite capable of telling an honest work of art, and that "the chief pleasure on offer seems to be wallowing in the spectacle of sadism (including sexual sadism) for its own sake."
- My Daughter's a Cocksucker - this is an incest-themed pornographic film in which men perform irrumatio on women, who frequently look directly into camera and deliver lines such as "Daddy always likes it when I choke" and "Am I good enough to teach the little sister?" The Guidelines at 'R18' allow for real oral sex including 'deep throat' scenes but not a focus on images or verbal references to choking, gagging, etc. which is considered an 'abusive, degrading and dehumanizing' and potentially harmful sexual portrayal by the BBFC. In many hardcore productions such scenes are cut, but here they were so frequent- along with the also unacceptable references to an incestuous set-up- a viable work would not remain following cuts and it was instead rejected.
- Lost in the Hood - this gay pornographic film with a plot line depicting men as abducted, brutalized, and raped by other men. The sex is unsimulated and was, in real life, consensual but "rape fantasy" sex works are not permitted by UK censors, whether or not they would likely fall foul of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008's prohibition on 'extreme pornography'.
- The Human Centipede II was released as direct-to-video (differently from other countries, where it had a theatrical release if it was released at all) with 150 seconds of footage cut to remove sexualized violence and extreme gross-out scenes.
- The Bunny Game - this avant-garde horror film was banned due to extensive unacceptably presented scenes of rape and sexualized violence. The eroticisation and arguable endorsement of such violence was deemed by the Board to have the potential for being highly harmful under the Video Recordings Act 1984.
- Hate Crime - this 2012 found footage-like home invasion thriller about a Jewish family who find themselves subjected to horrific acts of violence, rape, and torture by a gang of meth-addicted neo-Nazis, was deliberately intended to get slapped with a BBFC ban. Director James Bressack, himself Jewish, was proud about the fact that his film was "officially too twisted for the UK" and once again attempted to justify it as a conscientious work designed to draw attention to the issue of anti-Semitic hate. Once again, the BBFC was not convinced, making it clear that they understood the difference between sincere art and exploitation masquerading as art. Technically the film is not "banned" in a legal sense as there is no requirement for films released solely online to be BBFC-classified, and no jury or magistrate has ever condemned it as violating one of the laws applying to online material distributed in Britain (such as containing indecent images of under-18s, being obscene, constituting incitement to hatred or glorification of terrorism.) As the same or stricter criteria are applied to video works, it would however certainly be unlawful to supply in the UK on a physical medium where the Video Recordings Act does mandate BBFC approval.
- Gestapo's Last Orgy - this 1977 Italian exploitation film was submitted to the BBFC for DVD release by 88 Films. It was refused classification and therefore release in the United Kingdom on 26 January 2021. In its reasoning the BBFC cited the film's pervasive Nazi imagery, anti-Semitic nature and scenes of extreme sexual violence and rape. As these themes run throughout the film and serve as a central plot point, cuts were deemed unsupportable.
- In Autumn 1972, Lord Longford and Raymond Blackburn decided to pursue a matter of pornography classification for the Swedish sex educational film Language of Love into the Court of Appeal of Lord Denning, MR, and lost the writ of mandamus against the Police Commissioner, who had refused to intrude upon the BBFC remit.
- Black Friday (2004) - this Indian Hindi-language crime film was released in the United Kingdom with 17 seconds of the cockfighting scenes deleted. Laws in the UK do not allow any film footage of actual animal cruelty that has been deliberately orchestrated by film-makers.
- Just Jaeckin's The Story of O was banned outright in the UK until 2000.
- Savage Man, Savage Beast, a 1976 mondo film, was banned in its uncut form upon its release, and nearly ten minutes' worth of footage had to be removed before it could be passed (with an X rating) by the BBFC.
- Incredibles 2: Many disability advocates, including the Epilepsy Foundation, have raised concerns that movie scenes with flashing lights, including that in Incredibles 2 of Elastigirl's fight with the Screenslaver, can trigger seizures in viewers affected by photosensitive epilepsy. As a result, several theaters posted warnings for audiences. In response to this, a re-edited version was released in the United Kingdom with all affected sequences altered so that any flashing lights and strobe effects now pass the Harding test.
- Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles used to be censored due to the display of nunchakus and shurikens (as possessing those weapons in the UK is illegal).
- Any scene depicting ninja weapons such as nunchakus and shurikens was censored. Such examples were the iconic nunchaku scene of Bruce Lee's Enter the Dragon and the final fight scene of Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story.
On BBC, paid advertising is banned, due to the network being public access and funded by license fees.
- Yo-Kai Watch - the episodes "The Sleepover" and "Yo-Kai Fidgepant" were banned on their initial releases.
- Ikki Tousen: Dragon Destiny: One of its mini-OVAs was essentially banned by the BBFC through requiring the entire length of the OVA to be cut from the DVD except for the credits due to sexualized depictions of underage nudity.
- Fate/kaleid liner PRISMA☆ILLYA: The anime was not distributed past its first season by Anime Limited due to fears of a ban in the UK.
- Valkyrie Drive: Mermaid: this anime was banned because the BBFC demanded extensive cuts to teenage sexual activity and nudity throughout to get an 18 rating. The unnamed distributor canceled their plans to release the series, and it was also pulled from the Funimation UK site.
- Panty & Stocking with Garterbelt - this anime is not allowed to be shown on television at all for its extreme sexual references and strong use of bad language- Funimation tried to do a censored edition to get it on Adult Swim, with the fans backing it. However, it was ultimately rejected. That said, it is still allowed on Blu-Ray and DVD, so it's only a soft-ban.
- Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1987 TV Series): In the United Kingdom, the series was originally released under the name Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles (TMHT). This was due to the controversy surrounding ninjas and related weapons such as nunchaku at the time. The intro sequence was heavily edited because of this, replacing the word ninja with hero or fighting, using a digitally faded logo instead of the animated blob, and removing any scenes in which Michelangelo wields his nunchaku, replacing them with clips from the show. Scenes of Michelangelo using his nunchaku were likewise edited out of the episodes themselves, which led the American show runners to drop the weapons from the series entirely in the fourth season in order to make the show more appropriate for the international airings. The weapons were replaced with a grappling hook called the "Turtle Line" that served as Mikey's signature weapon for the rest of the show's run. The word 'ninja' was also edited out of any speech within the show, often leading to some awkward sounding dialogue. The ban on depictions of such weapons however, was relaxed in 1999 and the 2003 TMNT series survived in the UK unchanged.
- Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation: This TV series, was made with Michelangelo not having nunchucks because of the opinion that some countries have about him, and so the censorship that the Europeans did was change the name to Hero Turtles: The Next Mutation.
Since the Jimmy Savile sex scandal was revealed in 2012, most of the memorials, organizations, and archive footage which featured him (such as the BBC show Jim'll Fix It, for instance) have been removed, destroyed, or made unavailable to the general public, including every episode of Top of the Pops presented or co-presented by Saville.
Margaret Thatcher's government (1979-1992) was very sensitive about the terrorist group IRA, which had blown up several of its members. As such, it banned the broadcast of anything said by terrorists or their spokesmen, with interesting results:
- While the ban prohibited broadcasting their statements, the government couldn't stop the media from actually interviewing them. This led to an unusual practice when a politician (such as Gerry Adams of Sinn Fein) was going to be interviewed,would have his voice clearly dubbed over out of sync. This practice was satirised by The Day Today (where the interviewee was required to inhale helium) and remembered years later by a radio episode of Dead Ringers (where the interviewer was delayed, as his questioning about the Iraq War was "too scary" for the politicians).
- The government tried to ban Death on the Rock, a Thames Television documentary which suggested that the government may have unlawfully killed some IRA members. Which didn't work, so the government just mass-deregulated ITV and watched it get outbid and replaced (which in turn led to ITV's radical reshaping through the Broadcasting Act 1990, with Thames Television being replaced by Carlton Television and mass consolidation).
- Deadliest Warrior : the episode "IRA vs. Taliban" as the only one of said show not aired in the United Kingdom. The government didn't ban it, but no network was willing to show it. Charlie Brooker got away with showing the intro and an abridged fight sequence on You Have Been Watching, the final outcome of the fight being the question for his panellists. Incidentally, the IRA wins this particular game of militant five-a-side with a well-placed car bomb.
- Star Trek: The Next Generation - the episode "The High Ground" was left out of the original BBC broadcast of the show during The Troubles, because Data mentioned that Ireland was reunited in 2024 after a successful "terrorist" campaign, in the context of a story based around a fantastic racism-based metaphorical version of Northern Ireland (which at the time had a sectarian war between Catholics and Protestants, where the IRA (which used violence for the goal of uniting Ireland.) caused most casualties).
- Star Trek: The Original Series - the episode "Miri", during its first BBC broadcast, led to protests over its alleged horrific nature. As a result, it and three later episodes ("Plato's Stepchildren", "The Empath", and "Whom Gods Destroy") were suppressed from BBC broadcasts of the show until the 1990s for being deemed too violent and horrific. Strangely, the BBC broadcasted much worse scenes on its own show Doctor Who scot-free.
- Everybody Loves Raymond: two episodes of this sitcom could not be shown before the watershed. The first is "Marie's Sculpture", due to its depiction of a large sculpture of a vagina. The second is "No Roll!", due to its detailing of Ray and Debra's sex life. Some may find it odd, because the show's native United States is more stringent with sexual humour than Britain; but actual depictions of genitalia are pretty much taboo on British TV (and the show also aired on weekday mornings, leading to further censorship).
- Power Rangers: Lightspeed Rescue - the episode "Go Volcanic" was skipped over by Fox Kids UK due to its depiction of a realistic firearm. However, the episode aired on GMTV, though.
- The Simpsons:
- "The Cartridge Family" was omitted by Sky One due to depiction of foolish use of firearms (particularly the scene where Bart finds Homer's gun in the refrigerator and uses it to play William Tell with Milhouse). When the show's terrestrial broadcaster, BBC Two (at the time, the show's UK terrestrial broadcaster having since changed to Channel 4), got the rights four years later they had no qualms about showing the episode uncut, and when Sky One regained the broadcast rights for this episode in the mid-2000s, they also broadcast it uncensored. The episode was available on a PAL VHS called "The Simpsons: Too Hot for TV".
- The episode "Weekend at Burnsie's" was heavily edited by Sky One due to scenes of Homer being assaulted by animals (the crows pecking Homer in the eyes and the drug dog biting Homer in the crotch) and drug themes (Homer smoking marijuana for medical purposes). In contrast, Australia and America have aired the episode unedited, but with higher ratings than normal. Both Sky and Channel 4 have since shown this episode on very few occasions, but only after 9:00 pm with no advertising.
- The episode "Smoke on the Daughter" did not air on Channel 4 in the UK, due to the plot of Lisa becoming addicted to passive smoke to improve her ballet skills.
- Usually, Channel 4 censors any scenes of Moe attempting suicide, but the episode "Whiskey Business" was not aired on that network due to Moe's suicidal behavior being a central part of the plot. However Channel 4 did air it in 2019 in a late night time slot instead of the show's usual teatime slot.
- Mickey Mouse - the 1933 cartoon The Mad Doctor was banned due to the presence of skeletons, representing "the living undead" and fell under restrictions put in place after 1931 films such as Frankenstein and Dracula were shown on British theatres.
- Betty Boop - the 1934 cartoon "Red Hot Mama" was banned due to its depiction of Hell being deemed "unsuitable for public distribution in this country".
- Broomstick Cottage - this Canadian-esque 1990 cartoon was refused broadcast on British television.
- SpongeBob SquarePants:
- the episode "Shanghaied" is rarely aired in the country due to it being scary.
- the episode "Spongebob in Randomland" had some seconds cut which actually referenced the infamous Squidward's Suicide creepypasta.
- My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic - the episode "The Super Speedy Cider Squeezy 6000" was not aired in the UK at all, due to the fact that in British English, "cider" refers to the alcoholic beverage made from fermented apple juice (as opposed to the American and Canadian, which refers also to the non-alcoholic beverage), which would make the episode inappropriate to kids by UK standards. It does not help matters that cheap supermarket cider in the UK is infamous as something that underage kids illegally acquire to get drunk on. (Making the climax of the episode much, much funnier, but alas...) The episode "Bats!" also had references to Rainbow Dash craving cider cut out.
- Pingu had some episodes censored or banned due to their contents:
- "Pingu's Lavatory Story" is a notorious example, as it features somewhat realistic depictions of the characters urinating (even though penguins in real life don't excrete in that way humans do). The episode is heavily edited, but it's still allowed to air on TV.
- "Pingu Runs Away" and "Pingu's Dream" were banned for their heavy amounts of content which could be considered as "frightening".
- Titeuf - this Swiss-French animated series could only be broadcasted in a heavily censored edition, as the original had a way more liberal approach to children's attitude to sex and sexuality than British censors were with.
- Teen Titans Go! had the episodes "Caged Tiger" and "Serious Business" rarely shown on the UK feed of Cartoon Network as their contents were by the BBFC as "imitable behavior" (a character messing with electrical cords and a character jumping into a toilet, respectively) until the former episode came back into regular rotation on 26 November 2017 paired with "Animals: It's Just A Word", while the latter came back on 26 March 2018 paired with "Hot Salad Water".
- Adventure Time - the episode "Breezy" was never broadcast in the UK due to the pervasive sexual subject matter which was considered impossible to be produced a child-friendly cut. Some episodes involving Finn losing his right arm were not broadcast in the Britain either, fearing that young viewers would find them too upsetting.
- Hillsborough - this 2014 made-for-TV documentary, which is a 25-year retrospective of the infamous Hillsborough disaster (in which 96 Liverpool FC supporters died after the Hillsborough stadium stand's central pen crushed due to overcrowding during the 1989 FA Cup semi-final between Liverpool FC and Nottingham Forest played in Sheffield), was initially banned in the UK due to the reevaluation of the events of the disaster in a High Court inquest. The documentary was aired in the US on the 25th anniversary of the disaster. After the final verdict was announced in 2016, the BBC aired it with added footage of the inquest and its final verdict.
- In 1976, the BBC refused to broadcast the Formula 1 1976 British Grand Prix due to one of the cars, the Surtees TS19 driven by Alan Jones, having as sponsor Durex, a condom manufacturer, as Team Surtees refused to remove the Durex logo from its cars. As result from this decision from the BBC, many British viewers missed out one of the most exciting duels of the 1976 season between James Hunt and Niki Lauda.
- While the English Football League allowed shirt sponsorship in 1977, many football teams in England and Scotland were not allowed to show their sponsors' logos on their jerseys in televised matches until 1983.
- Incidentally, in 1983, the English Football League allowed live football broadcasting, which said organisation resisted before said year. Back then, only the highlights of the football matches were broadcast, on BBC's Match of the Day.
- The Dam Busters (1955) - when the British television network ITV broadcast a censored version of this British war film, every instance of the name of a dog called "N***er" removed. ITV blamed regional broadcaster London Weekend Television, which in turn alleged that a junior staff member had been responsible for the unauthorised cuts. When ITV again showed a censored version in June 2001, it was criticised by Index on Censorship as "unnecessary and ridiculous" and because the edits introduced continuity errors. The code word "n****r" transmitted in Morse Code upon the successful completion of the central mission was not censored.
Video game censorship
- Carmageddon - this game the first to be refused classification in 1997, due to "glamourising vehicular homicide". Later, the BBFC reversed its decision, resulting in the game being released uncensored after a lawsuit from the game's developers, SCI.
- Hitman 2: Silent Assassin - this game was withdrawn from sales in 2002 due to religious insensitivities, as one mission involved a Sikh sect depicted as terrorists involved in arms smuggling and assassination, as well a section that many Sikhs believed it resembled closely the 1984 massacre at Amritsar Golden Temple.
- Manhunt 2 - this game was refused a rating by the BBFC, outright banning it since retailers require a rating to sell such items. This was the first such ban for a game in over a decade, and the courts eventually overturned the decision, which was bluntly justified it by stating that it wasn't even a very good game.
- Mind Quiz - this game was recalled in the UK due to its use of the word "spastic", which is highly offensive in the country.
- Omega Labyrinth Z this game was banned in 2018, due to its extremely sexualised content featuring characters who looked very underage. The UK is the fifth country to ban the game after Germany, Australia, New Zealand, and Ireland.
- RapeLay - this games is banned in Britain after worldwide media caught wind of the infamous game, for obvious reasons, Despite the game never having a release scheduled outside of Japan, and Illusion, the company behind it, outright saying they have no interest in bringing it outside the country.
- Rule of Rose had its release postponed due to pressure from Members of the Parliament, after a moral panic story from an Italian magazine about it, alleging that sexual contact between minors takes place in the game. It did not help that the trailer at the time featured the obviously school-age Diana suggestively raising the hem-line of her dress, whilst smiling coquettishly. Added to these the European impression then that all video games are universally for children, and the outcry started. While those allegations are dubious at best, The romantic friendship between two school girls sort of this sort is a major theme, though it was likely ultimately unreleased/banned because of the adult characters doing harm to minors and the fact that the game is set in the UK.
- There is not such thing called "American" Catholic Church, at least not with the recognition of the Holy See. The councilman probably meant United States Council of Catholic Bishops (the episcopal umbrella for Catholic dioceses and archdioceses in the US), or more likely the Legion of Decency, a semi-official group that by that time had its own ratings system parallel to the MPAA's. The ratings system is still used (with small modifications) by Catholic News Service, and is now strictly advisory in nature.
- For that matter, contrary to what antisemitic conspiracy theories state, there is no such organisation as the "American Jewish church" either. If there were, it would not be called a "church", anyway.
- Censorship in the United Kingdom at Wikipedia
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